This list relates to the 2016-17 which ended on 31/07/2017
  1. Basic Reading 34 items
    NB: The widely changing political shape (including the various linguistic variants of place-names) of Central Europe during the last two centuries is relatively unknown. Hence, it is of essence you get acquainted with it. The first step is to consult the maps to which the links are included at the end of the Handbook, in the section Geography and History of Central Europe in Maps. I also strongly recommend that for this purpose you consider purchasing: Magocsi, P.R. 2002 Historical Atlas of Central Europe (or the earlier edition of this atlas, published in 1993, and entitled Historical Atlas of East-Central Europe), Atlas Ost- und Südosteuropa /Atlas of Eastern and Southeastern Europe (http://library.st-andrews.ac.uk/search~S5?/tAtlas+Ost-+und+S{u00FC}dosteuropa+%3B+2.8-H%2FR%2FYU1A./tatlas+ost+und+sudosteuropa++++2++++8+h+r+yu1a/-3,-1,0,B/browse); 29 maps + books, see overview at: http://www.oeaw.ac.at/isr/fileadmin/mediapool/dokumente/projekte/AOS/AOS.pdf; http://www.oeaw.ac.at/isr/projekte/laufend/forschungsbereich-regionaler-wandel-in-europa/aos-atlas-ost-und-suedosteuropa/
    1. Atlases 5 items
      NB: The widely changing political shape (including the various linguistic variants of place-names) of Central Europe during the last two centuries is relatively unknown. Hence, it is of essence you get acquainted with it. The first step is to consult the maps to which the links are included at the end of the Handbook, in the section Geography and History of Central Europe in Maps. I also strongly recommend that for this purpose you consider purchasing Magocsi's Historical Atlas of Central Europe (see below).
      1. or the earlier edition:

      2. Historical atlas of East Central Europe - Paul R. Magocsi, Geoffrey J. Matthews 1993

        Book 

      3. See also:

      4. Atlas Ost- und Südosteuropa = Atlas of eastern and southeastern Europe 1995

        Book  29 maps + books, see overview at: http://www.oeaw.ac.at/isr/fileadmin/mediapool/dokumente/projekte/AOS/AOS.pdf

    2. A history of Eastern Europe: crisis and change - Robert Bideleux, Ian Jeffries 1998

      Book 

    3. A concise historical atlas of Eastern Europe - Dennis P. Hupchick, Harold E. Cox 1996

      Book 

    4. The Germans and the East - Charles W. Ingrao, Franz A. J. Szabo 2008

      Book 

    5. The politics of language and nationalism in modern central Europe - Tomasz Kamusella 2009

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    6. Creating languages in Central Europe during the last millennium - Tomasz Kamusella 2015

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    7. The Jews in Poland and Russia - Antony Polonsky 2010-2012

      Book 

    8. A history of East Central Europe: Vol.9: [East Central Europe between the two World Wars] - Peter F. Sugar, Donald W. Treadgold, Joseph Rothschild 1974

      Book 

    9. Imagining the Balkans - Mari︠i︡a Nikolaeva Todorova 1997

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    10. The Balkans in world history - Andrew Baruch Wachtel 2008

      Book 

    11. Course Bibliography: NB: In most cases more books and articles on the subject covered can be found in the library's holdings and/or electronic resources (especially, jstor.com, www.ceeol.com and Proquest Dissertations and Theses)

  2. 1. From the Ottoman Empire to the Balkan Nation-states I (Montenegro, Serbia, Yugoslavia, Greece) 28 items
    1. Ottoman Empire & General 7 items
      1. The establishment of the Balkan national states, 1804-1920 - Charles Jelavich, Barbara Jelavich 1986

        Book 

    2. Montenegro 5 items
      1. Montenegro: a modern history - Kenneth Morrison 2009 (electronic book)

        Book 

    3. Serbia 5 items
      1. The Servian people: their past glory and their destiny - Stephen Lazar Eugene Lazarovich-Hrebelianovich, Eleanor Mulda Calhoun Lazarovich-Hrebelianovich 1910

        Book 

      2. Serbia: the history of an idea - Stevan K. Pavlowitch 2002

        Book 

    4. Yugoslavia 5 items
      1. Jugoslavia - Alice Garnett (et al) 1944-1945

        Book 

      2. The southern slavs: land and people - Jugoslav Committee in London 1916

        Book 

    5. Greece 6 items
      1. The Greek islands and Turkey after the war - Henry M. Field 1887

        Book  Available in the Library (Special Collections) and online via Internet Archive.

      2. Language and national identity in Greece, 1766-1976 - Peter A. Mackridge 2010

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

  3. 2. From the Ottoman Empire to the Balkan Nation-states II (Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Macedonia) 41 items
    1. Ottoman Empire/General 6 items
      1. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire - Gábor ́Agoston, Bruce Alan Masters 2008

        Book 

      2. The establishment of the Balkan national states, 1804-1920 - Charles Jelavich, Barbara Jelavich 1986

        Book 

    2. Romania (& Moldova) 10 items
      1. Romania: borderland of Europe - Lucian Boia, James Christian Brown (trans) 2001

        Book 

      2. The Romanians, 1774-1866 - Keith Hitchins 1996

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      3. Rumania, 1866-1947 - Keith Hitchins 1994

        Book 

      4. Convergences culturelles gréco-roumaines (1774-1859) - Cornelia Papacostea-Danielopolu 1998

        Book 

    3. Bulgaria 9 items
      1. Bulgaria - R. J. Crampton 2009 (electronic book)

        Book 

      2. Bulgaria, 1300 years - Khristo Angelov Khristov 1980

        Book 

    4. Albania (& Kosovo) 8 items
      1. Kosovo: a short history - Noel Malcolm 1998

        Book 

      2. Albania - John Linton Myres, Harold St. John Loyd Winterbotham, F. Longland 1945

        Book 

      3. The Albanians: a modern history - Miranda Vickers 1997

        Book 

      4. Albania: from anarchy to a Balkan identity - Miranda Vickers, James Pettifer 1997

        Book 

    5. Macedonia 8 items
      1. The Macedonian question: Britain and the Southern Balkans, 1939-1949 - Dimitris Livanios 2008

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. Yugoslav communism and the Macedonian question - Stephen E. Palmer, Robert R. King 1971

        Book 

      3. The New Macedonian Question - James Pettifer 1999

        Book  Available in library and as an e-book.

      4. Who are the Macedonians? - Hugh Poulton 2000

        Book 

  4. 3. How the Austro-Hungarian Compromise Incited New National Movements I (Cisleithania: Czechs, Croats, Germans, Italians, Poles, Slovenes) 48 items
    1. Austria-Hungary/General 10 items
      1. The dissolution of the Habsburg monarchy - Oscar Jaszi 1961

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. The peoples of the Eastern Habsburg lands, 1526-1918 - Robert A. Kann, Zdenĕk V. David 1984

        Book 

    2. Czechs 11 items
      1. The Czech reader: history, culture, politics - Jan Bažant, Nina Bažantová, Frances Starn 2010

        Book 

      2. The Prague Slav Congress of 1848 - Lawrence D. Orton 1978

        Book 

      3. The coasts of Bohemia: a Czech history - Derek Sayer, Alena Sayer (trans) 1998

        Book 

    3. Czechoslovakia 5 items
    4. Austrians/Germans 7 items
      1. Germany and Austria, 1814-2000 - Mark Allinson 2002

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. A concise history of Austria - Steven Beller 2006

        Book 

      3. Austrian historical memory & national identity - Günter Bischof, Anton Pelinka 1997

        Book 

      4. The Zollverein - William Otto Henderson 1959

        Book 

    5. Italians/Istrians 7 items
      1. Dubrovnik (Ragusa) - a classic city-state - Francis William Carter 1972

        Book 

    6. Galicia: Poles/Ukrainians 4 items
      1. Focusing on Galicia: Jews, Poles, and Ukrainians, 1772-1918 - Yiśraʼel Barṭal, Antony Polonsky 1999

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. Galicia: a multicultured land - C. M. Hann, Paul R. Magocsi 2005

        Book 

    7. Slovenes 4 items
      1. The Italian army in Slovenia: strategies of antipartisan repression, 1941-1943 - Amedeo Osti Guerrazzi, Elizabeth Burke (trans), Anthony Majanlahti (trans) 2013 (electronic book)

        Book 

      2. The Yugoslav-Italian frontier - Yugoslav Govt. Information Dept. 1943

        Book 

  5. 4. How the Austro-Hungarian Compromise Incited New National Movements II (Transleithania: Bosnians, Croats, Hungarians, Romanians, Rusyns, Saxons, Serbs, Slovaks) 38 items
    1. General/Hungarians 8 items
      1. Hungary in World War II: caught in the cauldron - Deborah S. Cornelius 2011

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. Austria, Hungary, and the Habsburgs: essays on Central Europe c.1683-1867 - Robert John Weston Evans 2006

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      3. A history of Hungary: millennium in Central Europe - László Kontler, Robert Oresko 2002

        Book 

      4. Hungarian culture and politics in the Habsburg monarchy, 1711-1848 - Gábor Vermes 2014

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    2. Bosnia(ns) 6 items
      1. Sarajevo: a biography - Robert J. Donia 2009

        Book 

      2. Bosnia: a short history - Noel Malcolm 2002

        Book 

      3. The denial of Bosnia - Rusmir Mahmutćehajić, Francis R. Jones (trans), Marina Bowder (trans) 2000

        Book 

      4. The annexation of Bosnia, 1908-1909 - Bernadotte Everly Schmitt 1937

        Book 

    3. Croats 6 items
      1. A history of Croatia - Stephen Gaži 1973

        Book 

      2. Croatia: a History - Ivo Goldstein, Nikolina Jovanović (trans) 1999

        Book 

      3. Language planning and national identity in Croatia - Keith Langston, Anita Peti-Stantic 2014 (electronic book)

        Book 

    4. Rusyns 4 items
      1. Encyclopedia of Rusyn history and culture - Paul R. Magocsi, I. I. Pop 2005

        Book 

      2. The Rusyns of Hungary: political and social developments, 1860-1910 - Mária Mayer, János Boris (trans), Paul R. Magocsi (ed) 1997

        Book 

    5. Slovaks 8 items
      1. Slovak history: chronology & lexicon - Július Bartl, David Paul Daniel (ed, trans), Albert Devine (ed) 2002

        Book 

      2. 'Independent' Slovakia - Victor Dvortchak 1939

        Book 

      3. History of modern Slovakia - Jozef Lettrich 1955

        Book 

      4. Slovakia in history - Mikuláš Teich, Dušan Kováč, Martin D. Brown 2010

        Book 

    6. Transylvania 6 items
      1. Hungary and Romania beyond national narratives: comparisons and entanglements - Anders E. B. Blomqvist, Constantin Iordachi, Balázs Trencsényi 2013

        Book 

      2. Transylvania: a short history - István Lázár, Thomas J. DeKornfeld (trans) 1997

        Book 

      3. National identity of Romanians in Transylvania - Sorin Mitu, Sorana Corneanu (trans) 2001

        Book 

  6. 5. From Serfs to Nations in the Lands of Partitioned Poland-Lithuania I (Germans, Poles, Russians, Ukrainians) 41 items
    1. Poles 15 items
      1. The historical atlas of Poland - Władysław Czapliński, Tadeusz Ładogórski, Maria Paczyńska (trans) 1981

        Book 

      2. A concise history of Poland - Jerzy Lukowski, Hubert Zawadzki 2001

        Book 

    2. Hanse/Baltic 4 items
      1. La Hanse (XIIe-XVIIe siècles) - Philippe Dollinger 1964

        Book 

      2. The Hansa towns - Helen Zimmern 1889

        Book 

    3. Germans/Prussians 7 items
      1. The other Prussia: Royal Prussia, Poland and liberty, 1569-1772 - Karin Friedrich 2000

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. Treitschke's Origins of Prussianism (the Teutonic knights) - Heinrich von Treitschke, Eden Paul (trans), Cedar Paul (trans) 1942

        Book 

      3. The Prussian Crusade - William L. Urban 1980

        Book 

    4. Ukraine 15 items
      1. Encyclopedia of Ukraine - Volodymyr Kubijovyč, Danylo Husar Struk 93/1984

        Book 

      2. Ukraine: an illustrated history - Paul R. Magocsi 2007

        Book 

      3. The Cossacks and religion in early modern Ukraine - Serhii Plokhy 2001

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      4. Frontline Ukraine: crisis in the borderlands - Richard Sakwa 2015

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      5. Rusʹ restored: selected writings of Meletij Smotrycʹkyj, 1610-1630 - Meletiĭ Smotry︠t︡sʹkyĭ, David A. Frick (trans) 2005

        Book 

      6. The moulding of Ukraine: the constitutional politics of state formation - Kataryna Wolczuk 2001

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

  7. 6. From Serfs to Nations in the Lands of Partitioned Poland-Lithuania II (Belarusians, Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians) 44 items
    1. Grand Duchy of Lithuania 5 items
      1. A book of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: towards the traditions of European community - Andrzej Strumiłło, Izabela Korybut-Daszkiewicz, Zdzisław Dudek 2008

        Book 

      2. Encyclopedia Lituanica - Simas Sužiedélis 78/1970

        Book 

      3. The Lithuanian statute of 1529 - Karl von Loewe 1976

        Book 

      4. The peoples of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania - Grigorijus Potašenko, Axel Holvoer (trans) 2002

        Book 

    2. Belarusians 19 items
      1. This country called Belarus: an illustrated history - U. A. Arloŭ, Jim Dingley (trans) 2013

        Book 

      2. Handbuch der Geschichte Weissrusslands - Dietrich Beyrau, Rainer Lindner 2001

        Book 

      3. Belarus: a denationalized nation - David R. Marples 1999

        Book 

      4. Belarus: a perpetual borderland - Andrew Savchenko 2009

        Book 

    3. Estonia 5 items
      1. Eesti ajaloo atlas - Aivar Kriiska 2006

        Book 

      2. Soviet deportations in Estonia: impact and legacy : articles and life histories - Kristi Kukk, Toivo U. Raun, Alliki Arro (trans), Madli Puhvel (trans) 2007

        Book 

      3. Estonia and the Estonians - Toivo U. Raun 1991

        Book 

    4. Latvia 8 items
      1. Latvia as an independent state - Alfreds Bilmanis 2007 [1947]

        Book 

      2. The 1917 revolution in Latvia - Andrew Ezergailis 1974

        Book 

      3. The Latvians: a short history - Andrejs Plakans 1995

        Book 

    5. Lithuanians 7 items
      1. Encyclopedia Lituanica - Simas Sužiedélis 78/1970

        Book 

      2. The history of Lithuania - Zigmantas Kiaupa 2005

        Book 

      3. Lithuania awakening - Alfred Erich Senn 1990

        Book 

      4. Lithuania: the rebel nation - Vytas Stanley Vardys, Judith B. Sedaitis 1997

        Book 

  8. 7. Dilemmas of Nation-Building I (Jews: Between Diaspora, Antisemitism, Zionism, Holocaust and Israel) 23 items
    1. Idysh-belaruski sloŭnik - Al︠i︡aksandar Astravukh 2008

      Book 

    2. The revolt: story of the Irgun - Menachem Begin 1951

      Book 

    3. The agony of Greek Jews, 1940-1945 - Steven B. Bowman 2009 (electronic book)

      Book 

    4. Soviet Yiddish: language planning and linguistic development - G. Ėstraĭkh 1999

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    5. The Jewish state - Theodor Herzl 1988

      Book 

    6. From shtetl to socialism: studies from Polin - Antony Polonsky 1993

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    7. Jews and the emerging Polish state - Antony Polonsky 2008 (electronic book)

      Book 

    8. The Jews in Poland and Russia - Antony Polonsky 2010-2012

      Book  3 volumes.

    9. Jews in the Kingdom of Poland, 1815-1918 - Glenn Dynner, Antony Polonsky, Marcin Wodziński 2015 (electronic book)

      Book 

    10. Social and cultural boundaries in pre-modern Poland - Alan Teller, Magda Teter, Antony Polonsky 2010 (electronic book)

      Book 

  9. 8. Dilemmas of Nation-Building II (Roma: Forgotten, Discriminated and Exterminated) 29 items
    1. Roma in Europe: the politics of collective identity formation - Ioana Bunescu 2014

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    2. The Gypsies during the Second World War - Donald Kenrick, Herbert Heuss, Frank Sparing, Karola Fings 1997-2006

      Book 

    3. Danger!: educated gypsy : selected essays - Ian F. Hancock, Dileep Karanth (ed) 2010 (electronic book)

      Book 

    4. The Romani Gypsies - Yaron Matras 2015

      Book 

  10. 9. Dilemmas of Nation-Building III (Germans or Austrians: Mitteleuropa, Great or Little Germany?) 22 items
    1. A concise history of Austria - Steven Beller 2006

      Book 

    2. Czechs, Germans, Jews?: national identity and the Jews of Bohemia - Kateřina Čapková, Derek Paton (trans), Marzia Paton (trans) 2012 (electronic book)

      Book 

    3. The German minority in interwar Poland - Winson Chu 2012

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    4. The Holy Roman Empire, reconsidered - Jason Philip Coy, Benjamin Marschke, David Warren Sabean 2010

      Book 

    5. Austria, Hungary, and the Habsburgs: essays on Central Europe c.1683-1867 - Robert John Weston Evans 2006

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    6. The Germans and the East - Charles W. Ingrao, Franz A. J. Szabo 2008

      Book 

    7. The German myth of the East: 1800 to the present - Vejas G. Liulevicius 2009

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    8. Central Europe - F. Naumann, C. M. Meredith 1916

      Book 

  11. 10. Bloodlands = Modernity? (Quest for Ethnolinguistic Homogeneity: Genocide, Expulsions and Forced Assimilation) 26 items
    1. Islam and Nazi Germany's war - David Motadel 2014

      Book 

    2. Stalin's genocides - Norman M. Naimark 2010

      Book 

    3. The lands between: conflict in the east European borderlands, 1870-1992 - Alexander Victor Prusin 2010

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    4. Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin - Timothy Snyder 2011

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    5. Stalin and Europe: imitation and domination, 1928-1953 - Timothy Snyder, Ray Brandon 2014 (electronic book)

      Book 

    6. A question of genocide: Armenians and Turks at the end of the Ottoman Empire - Ronald Grigor Suny, Fatma Müge Göçek, Norman M. Naimark 2011

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    7. The dark side of nation states: ethnic cleansing in modern Europe - Philipp Ther, Charlotte Hughes-Kreutzmuller (trans) 2014

      Book 

    8. Ethnic cleansing in twentieth-century Europe - Steven Béla Várdy, T. Hunt Tooley 2003

      Book 

  12. 11. The Forgotten Central Europeans (Aromanians, Bunjevci, Czechoslovaks, Istrians, Kashubs, Latgallians, Memellanders, Mazurs, Poleshuks, Pomaks, Samogitians, Silesians, Sorbs, Szkelers …) 27 items
    1. The Lemkos of Poland: articles and essays - Paul J. Best, Jarosław Moklak 2000

      Book 

    2. Karaite studies - Philip Birnbaum 1971

      Book 

    3. The Crimean Tatars - Alan W. Fisher 1978

      Book 

    4. Parallel cultures: majority/minority relations in the countries of the former Eastern Bloc - Christopher Lord, Olga Strietska-Ilina 2001

      Book  See the chapter on the Poleshuks.

    5. The Cassubian civilization - Friedrich Lorentz, Adam Fischer, Tadeusz Lehr-Spławiński 1935

      Book 

    6. Agents of change: the Scots in Poland, 1800-1918 - Mona Kedslie McLeod McLeod 2000

      Book 

    7. The Kashubs: past and present - Cezary Obracht-Prondzyński, Tomasz Wicherkiewicz 2011

      Book 

    8. Samogitia: the unknown in history - Charles L. Thourot Pichel 1975

      Book 

    9. History of the Karaite Jews - William Harris Rule 1870

      Book  Available in the Library (Special Collections) and online via Internet Archive.

    10. Latgalian: The Latgalian Language in Education in Latvia - Heiko F. Marten, Ilga Šuplinska, Sanita Lazdiņa 2009

      Document 

  13. Geography and History of Central Europe in Maps 1 item
    1. Germanic-speakers between 100 BCE and 300 CE, http://treks.org/Pre_Migration_Age_Germanic.png

       

      Roman Empire divided, http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/colbeck/roman_empire_4_century.jpg

       

      Greek and Latin in the Roman Empire, http://peterkirby.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/latingreek.gif

       

      Spread of Christianity, 325-600, http://threeships.timerime.com/users/18093/media/Verbreiding_christendom.jpg

       

      Spread of Christianity, sixth to 14th centuries, http://www.movements.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/expansion-of-christianity.jpg

       

      Central Europe in 526, http://giusseppe.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/EU19_126.jpg

       

      Avar Khaganate and the Turkic world around 600, http://s155239215.onlinehome.us/turkic/btn_GeographyMaps/AD_600_Altyn_Oba.jpg

       

      Samo's Realm in about 631, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samo#mediaviewer/File:S%C3%A1mova_%C5%99%C3%AD%C5%A1e.png

       

      Central Europe in the mid-seventh century, http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protobulgaren#mediaviewer/File:Pontic_steppe_region_around_650_AD.png

       

      Avar and Bulgarian khaganates in about 700, http://mtdata.ru/u24/photoAFB5/20259615418-0/original.jpg

       

      Great Carantania in the eighth century, http://i128.photobucket.com/albums/p169/masterkuk/velika_vojvodina_karantanija2.jpg

       

      Central Europe in the Carolingian Empire, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Moravia#mediaviewer/File:Central_Europe_in_Carolingian_times.jpg

       

      Greater Moravia in the late ninth century, http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A4hrerreich#mediaviewer/File:Karte_M%C3%A4hrerreich_Svatopluk_I.png

       

      Greater Moravia: The question of territory, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Great_Moravia_Svatopluk.jpg

       

      Possible internal organization of Greater Moravia, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/55/Great_Moravia-eng.png

       

      Ethnolinguistic map of Europe in about 900, http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/shepherd/europe_peoples_900.jpg

       

      'Outer Slavia' or Civitas Schinesghe in about 990: Before Poland obtained its name, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c8/Polska_960_-_992.png

       

      Bulgarian Empire at the turn of the 10th century, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarian_Empire#mediaviewer/File:Bulgaria_Simeon_I_%28893-927%29.svg

       

      Norsemen, Magyars (Hungarians) and Arabs in Europe in 9th and 10th centuries, http://ballandalus.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/viking_magyar_and_saracen_invasions_in_9th_and_10th_century_europe.jpg

       

      Rus' in the 11th and 12 centuries, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kievan_Rus%27#mediaviewer/File:Principalities_of_Kievan_Rus%27_%281054-1132%29.jpg

       

      Holy Roman Empire in about 1000, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_Empire#mediaviewer/File:Holy_Roman_Empire_1000_map-en.svg

       

      Central Europe and the Holy Roman Empire in the early 13th century, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_Empire#mediaviewer/File:HRE-at-its-peak.jpg

       

      Lands of the Czech Crown in the 13th century, http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%A4nder_der_B%C3%B6hmischen_Krone#mediaviewer/File:Karte_B%C3%B6hmen_unter_Ottokar_II.png

       

      Lands of the Czech Crown in the 14th century, http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%A4nder_der_B%C3%B6hmischen_Krone#mediaviewer/File:Karte_B%C3%B6hmen_unter_Karl_IV.png

       

      Kalamar Union, 1397-1523, http://www.lasalle.edu/~mcinneshin/356/wk05/images/charlesVglobalemp.png

       

      Hanseatic League in about 1400: Between Scandinavia and Central Europe, http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanse#mediaviewer/File:Extent_of_the_Hansa-optimiert.jpg

       

      Central Europe at the turn of the 15th century: The ascendancy of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania#mediaviewer/File:Polska_1386_-_1434.png

       

      Reconquista in Iberia, 722-1492, http://fc07.deviantart.net/fs70/i/2013/121/d/b/the_reconquista__ad_722___1492__by_undevicesimus-d630pf7.jpg

       

      Crown of Aragon in 1385, http://articulos.altoaragon.org/soberanos.jpg

       

      Venice and its seaborne empire, c 1200-1797, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Venice#mediaviewer/File:Venezianische_Kolonien.png

       

      Genoa and its seaborne empire, 13th-18th centuries, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Genoa#mediaviewer/File:Repubblica_di_Genova.png

       

      Serbian ascendancy in the mid-14th century, http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/se_europe_1354-1358.jpg

       

      Hungary and Poland under a single monarch in 1370, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Lands_under_Louis_the_Great_in_the_middle_of_the_14th_century.jpg

       

      Possessions of Poland-Lithuania's House of Jagiellon at the turn of the 16th century, http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/11/64911-004-78AFFA51.gif

       

      Hungarian ascendancy in 1490, http://www.emersonkent.com/images/hungary_16_century.jpg

       

      Holy Roman Empire in the early 16th century, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_Empire#mediaviewer/File:Imperial_Circles_1512_en.png

       

      Habsburg Possessions in 1547, http://www.pasapues.es/mapas/antiguos/habsburgo1547.jpg

       

      Global Habsburg Empire in the mid-16th century, http://www.lasalle.edu/~mcinneshin/356/wk05/images/charlesVglobalemp.png

       

      Genocidal Thirty Years' War: Population loss, http://slantchev.ucsd.edu/courses/ps143a/maps/1648%20Thirty%20Years%20War%20-%20Population%20Losses%20in%20Germany.jpg

       

      Scandinavia and Central Europe in 1721: Strong connections, http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Poland/schwed_pol.jpg

       

      Swedish military campaigns in Central Europe in the early 18th century, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Great_Northern_War_Part1.png

       

      Brief Walachian (Romanian) ascendancy in the late 16th century, http://www.celendo.ro/UserFiles/PhotoGallery/Turism-Intern/Romania-pe-Scurt/Scurta-Istorie-a-Romanilor/tarileromaneintimpulluimihaiviteazul%281593-1601%29l.jpg

       

      Ottoman Empire in 1683: Central Europe and the Middle East, http://pages.uoregon.edu/dluebke/301ModernEurope/The-decline-of-the-Ottoman-Empire-1683-1924.jpg

       

      Partitions of Poland-Lithuania (1772, 1793, 1795), https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Rzeczpospolita_Rozbiory_3.png

       

      Central Europe in 1789, http://www.emersonkent.com/images/central_europe_1789.jpg

       

      Holy Roman Empire in 1789, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_Empire#mediaviewer/File:HRR_1789_EN.png

       

      Expansion of Muscovy and the Russian Empire till 1796, http://www.emersonkent.com/images/russia_1300_1796.jpg

       

      Expansion of the Russian Empire in the long 19th century, http://guweb2.gonzaga.edu/faculty/brunell/russian%20empire%202.gif

       

      Russia's territorial gains (at the expense of the Ottomans) along the northern Black Sea littoral, http://www.antiquaprintgallery.com/ekmps/shops/richben90/images/ottoman-empire-1683-1913-sw-crimea-1854-plan-sevastopol-1855-1956-map-66856-p.jpg

       

      Displacement of Muslims and Christians around the Black Sea, 1770-1923, http://turkbilimi.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/osmanl%C4%B1-g%C3%B6%C3%A7leri.jpg

       

      Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East in 1800, http://www.openunionism.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/map-europe-1800.jpg

       

      Central Europe under Napoleon in 1810, http://www.philippedufeu.co.uk/frame/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Europe-1810.jpg

       

      Central Europe in 1815, http://suadademirovic.com/sites/default/files/projects/gallery_image/1815efterNapo.jpg

       

      Europe in 1815, http://education.randmcnally.com/images/edpub/Europe_1815.jpg

       

      German Confederation, 1815-1866, http://www.emersonkent.com/images/central_europe_1815_1866.jpg

       

      Ethnolinguistico-confessional map of the Balkans in 1877, http://oi53.tinypic.com/2helijn.jpg

       

      Balkan nation-states in 1878, http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/balkans_1912.jpg

       

      Balkan nation-states in 1913, http://www.writework.com/uploads/14/145266/english-balkans-1913.jpg

       

      Expulsion of the Ottoman Empire from the Balkans, 1815-1915, http://www.cee-portal.at/Bilderordner/Maps/Balkan-1815-1915.jpg

       

      National territorial aspirations in the Balkans in 1912, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Territorial_aspirations_of_the_Balkan_states,_1912.jpg

       

      Albanian territorial aspirations, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Principality_of_Albania.svg/2000px-Principality_of_Albania.svg.png ; http://www.midafternoonmap.com/2013/06/greater-albania.html

       

      Megali Idea: The dream of a Greater Greece, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/Greece_in_the_Treaty_of_S%C3%A8vres.jpg

       

      Greater Greece in 1919, http://www.midafternoonmap.com/2013/05/greater-greece.html

       

      Armenian Genocide, 1915-1923, http://www.genocide-museum.am/eng/mapping_armenian_genocide3.php

       

      Assyrian Genocide in 1915, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/Assyrian_genocide_o2p.svg/2000px-Assyrian_genocide_o2p.svg.png

       

      Treaty of Sèvres: A failed partition of the rump Ottoman Empire (Turkey), http://15minutehistory.org/files/2013/05/second_greco-turkish_war_partitioning_of_anatolia.jpg

       

      Greece in Turkey, 1919-1922, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Greco_Turkish_War_1919-1922.svg/2000px-Greco_Turkish_War_1919-1922.svg.png

       

      Expulsions in the Balkans after the Great War, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/images/map-megali-katastrofi-01.jpg

       

      Central Europe in 1910, http://www.molidorf.com/images/East-Central-Europe-1910sm.jpg

       

      Russia and Central Europe in 1910, http://czernowitz.ehpes.com/czernowitz3/shawmaps/europe_1910.jpg

       

      Ethnolinguistic map of Central Europe in 1910, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Central_Europe_%28ethnic%29.JPG

       

      Religions in Central Europe in 1901, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/Mitteleuropa-Konfessionen_1901.JPG

       

      Scripts of Central Europe in 1900, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraktur#mediaviewer/File:Scripts_in_Europe_%281901%29.jpg

       

      Ethnolinguistic map of Austria-Hungary in 1914: The core of Central Europe?, http://etc.usf.edu/maps/pages/800/868/868.jpg

       

      Jews in Central Europe in 1881, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Juden_1881.JPG

       

      Jewish Pale of Settlement in Russia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Map_showing_the_percentage_of_Jews_in_the_Pale_of_Settlement_and_Congress_Poland,_The_Jewish_Encyclopedia_%281905%29.jpg

       

      Roma in Central Europe in 1939, http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-c1JroIv4sk4/Tf4PVLVKmKI/AAAAAAAAAZU/6DMmNOnhcpU/s1600/Tsiganes.gif

       

      Roma in contemporary Central Europe, http://www.columbia.edu/itc/sipa/nelson/newmediadev/files/ECAmap.jpg

       

      Roma in today's Europe, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Roma_people_in_the_world_ethnic_map.PNG

       

      Mitteleuropa of the Central Powers in 1918, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Austria-Hungary.jpg

       

      Interwar Central Europe of ethnolinguistic nation-states, http://www.cee-portal.at/Bilderordner/Maps/Europe-between-the-World-Wa.jpg

       

      Central Europe's Bloodlands: Hitler's and Stalin's genocides, http://www.haaretz.com/polopoly_fs/1.507939.1362728233!/image/3085445630.jpg

       

      Soviet Genocide: Holodomor in Ukraine, http://www.holodomorct.org/photos/political-geography-ukraine-holodomor-map.jpg

       

      Wartime deportations from Central Europe to the Soviet Union, http://i.imgur.com/P38kJMc.jpg

       

      Jewish Holocaust: Life loss, http://pages.uoregon.edu/mccole/HIST303Spring2012/maps/HolocaustMap.jpg

       

      Roma Porajmos, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porajmos#mediaviewer/File:Persecution_of_Roma.gif

       

      Expulsions in Central Europe, 1939-1944, http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/deut/deport39_44.jpg

       

      Expulsions in Central Europe, 1944-1952, http://www.blz.bayern.de/blz/eup/04_10/images/karte2_large.png

       

      Soviet Gulag in 1951, http://kresy-siberia.org/hom/files/9/GULAG_Slavery_Inc_map_001.jpg

       

      Central Europe in the Soviet Bloc, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f1/EasternBlocAfter.svg/2000px-EasternBlocAfter.svg.png

       

      Iron Curtain cutting through Central Europe, http://img256.imageshack.us/img256/1432/cweuropezu9.jpg

       

      Breakup of the Soviet Union, http://mapcollection.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/rsz_ussrnations.jpg

       

      Russian Federation, http://bestcitiez.com/data_images/countries/russian-federation/russian-federation-08.jpg

       

      Commonwealth of Independent States, 2013, http://saripedia.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/peta-negara-anggota-cis.jpg

       

      Eurasian Economic Union, 2014, http://www.ingoldwetrust.ch/wp-content/uploads/Schermafbeelding-2014-04-24-om-21.35.26.png

       

      Breakup of Yugoslavia, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/Former_Yugoslavia_2008.PNG

       

      Breakup of Czechoslovakia, http://cfile8.uf.tistory.com/image/1406C933500010802C65E1

       

      CEFTA (Central European Free Trade Area) in 2003: A Central European Economic Bloc?, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/CEFTA_2003.PNG

       

      Enlargement of NATO, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/History_of_NATO_enlargement.svg/2000px-History_of_NATO_enlargement.svg.png

       

      Enlargement of the European Union (EU): From Central Europe to Western Europe?, http://www.learneurope.eu/files/8913/7508/4281/Enlargements_of_the_EU_1958_2013_en.jpg

       

      Schengen Area, http://www.gibney.com/uploads/Schengen-Map-4.png

       

      Eurozone, 2014, http://www.stratfor.com/sites/default/files/styles/stratfor_full/public/main/images/eu_eurozone2_0.jpg?itok=jFIwyioH

       

      Council of Europe area, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/Map_of_the_47_Member_States_of_the_Council_of_Europe.jpg

       

      Numerous dimensions of European integration, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1a/Supranational_European_Bodies-en.svg/2000px-Supranational_European_Bodies-en.svg.png

       

      Russian annexation of Crimea (2014) and Russia's protectorates around the Black Sea, http://www.russianlife.com/default/cache/file/115A68FA-0ED6-486E-AB7FFB4B5540F072.jpg

       

      Russian attack on eastern Ukraine, 2014, http://f-origin.hypotheses.org/wp-content/blogs.dir/981/files/2014/08/Carte-comabts1.jpg

       

      Russian propaganda view on the territory of Ukraine (2014), http://www.sott.net/image/s8/172073/full/ukraine_map.jpg

       

      Russian-speakers outside today's Russia, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Russians_ethnic_94.jpg

       

      Changes in the Balkan dialect continua during the last two millennia, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f9/BalkLang-evolution.jpg

       

      Dialect continua and minority languages in today's Europe, http://cdn-images.9cloud.us/500/languages_and_dialects_of_europe_21_670481648.png

       

      Official and recognized languages in today's Europe, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/14/Languages_of_Europe_map.png

       

      Two Slavic dialect continua nowadays, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Slavic_languages.png

       

      Finno-Ugric dialect continua, http://www.helsinki.fi/~sugl_smi/kuvat/Kartat/Kielet/Fenno-Ugrian_languages.jpg

       

      Turkic dialect continua, http://www.geocurrents.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Turkic-Language-Map.jpg

       

      Greek dialect continuum in 1910, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_Greek#mediaviewer/File:Distribution_of_Greek_dialects_in_late_Byzantine_Empire_en.png

       

      Albanian dialect continuum, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/AlbaniansOutsideAlbania.png

       

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