This list relates to the 2016-17 which ended on 31/07/2017
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    Human beings in all cultures order their social worlds by classifying things on the basis of some perceived similarity and difference. A shared quality or feature among things is often used to constitute a class, which is contrasted with other classes of different things. We thus attempt to bring order to the world around us. These systems of classes help us in the way we operate in the world, talk about the world, and pass on knowledge to others about the world. What is striking to the anthropologist, as well as to the casual traveller to other cultures, is that the way humans classify the world around them differs from one place to the next. When confronted by different ways of ordering the world, and acting upon it, we can often experience unease and confusion, sometimes even repugnance and disgust. For example, what people in other cultures eat is often an area that excites such responses, and their habits are compared to the types of things we eat and think of as ‘proper food’. Anthropologists have examined various systems of such ‘cultural classification’, and have tried to make sense of why these differences arise and what their social consequences are. Indeed, these local features of difference and similarity are often related within the same society to a whole range of seemingly unconnected cultural conceptions and ways of thinking about and acting upon the world. We will examine in the course of these lectures anthropological approaches to ways of dividing up or classifying the world in a variety of different cultural settings around the globe.
    1. Introduction 3 items
      1. Classifications in their social context - Roy F. Ellen, David Reason 1979


    2. Topic 1. Food Taboos, Pollution and Prohibition 8 items
      1. The Abominations of Leviticus

        Chapter  (Digitised copy available via Tutorials/Essays reading list). See also below, the abridged version in W Lessa and E Vogt (eds) Reader in Comparative Religion 1979.

      2. Reader in comparative religion: an anthropological approach - William Armand Lessa, Evon Zartman Vogt, John M. Watanabe 1979

        Book  Abridged version of 'The Abominations of Leviticus' by Mary Douglas from her book Purity and Danger.

      3. Animal Categories and Verbal Abuse - E. Leach

        Chapter  Reprinted in W. Lessa & E. Vogt, Reader in Comparative Religion

      4. The traveller-gypsies - Okely, Judith 1983

        Book  Chapter 6 (Digitised copy available via Tutorials/Essays reading list)

      5. Rules and meanings: the anthropology of everyday knowledge : selected readings - Mary Douglas 1973

        Book  Article above 'Animals are Good to Think and Good to Prohibit' is reprinted in this book. pp. 127-166.

    A range of what we often like to think of as 'taken-­‐for-­‐granted' or ‘natural’ concepts are the foci of investigation in this series of lectures. We will examine how time, space and colour are viewed in different cultural settings across the world, and will see how social anthropologists have come to explain similarities and differences in cross-­‐cultural perspective. We will ask questions about how representations of time, space and colour vary or not from one culture to another. Are these concepts universal to all cultures, or are they wholly relative to each society in which they are found? How do people in different cultures understand time, space and colour in terms that are meaningful to them? What are the social and cultural consequences of such ways of understanding? In the process of this examination, we will confront our own as well as other people’s views on this set of selected topics.
    1. General Reading: 1 item
      1. The ceremonial animal: a new portrait of anthropology - Wendy James 2003

        Book  (Especially chp. 3, ‘Species, Space, and Time’)

    2. Topic 2: Colour 10 items
      Are conceptions of colour categories fundamentally different across different languages and therefore across different cultures, or are there universal constants that make for basic cross-­‐linguistic and cross-­‐ cultural similarities in colour terminology?
      1. Hanunóo Color Categories - H. Conklin

        Chapter  Available in the library and online

      2. Basic Color Terms - Peter Newcomer and James Faris 1971


      3. Colour Classification in Ndembu Ritual - V. Turner

        Chapter  Also published as Chp. 3 of Turner’s The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

      4. Colour Classification in Ndembu Ritual - Victor W. Turner

        Chapter  Chapter 3.

    3. Topic 3: Time 11 items
      1. Companion encyclopedia of anthropology - Tim Ingold 1994

        Book  Chapter 18: “Perceptions of time" - B.Adams. Available in the library and as an e-book.

      2. Algeria 1960: essays - Pierre Bourdieu, Pierre Bourdieu, Richard Nice 1979

        Book  esp. pp. 8-29.

      3. The Nuer: Time and Space - E. E. Evans-Pritchard

        Chapter  Same as above just with different title.

      4. Person, Time and Conducts in Bali

        Chapter  Available in the Library and as an ebook

      5. The qualities of time: anthropological approaches - James, Wendy, Mills, David 2005

        Book  Especially the ‘Introduction’.

      6. Two essays concerning the symbolic representation of time - E. Leach

        Chapter  [Reprinted in W. Lessa and E. Vogt, Reader in Comparative Religion (1979), pp. 220-229.]

      7. Reader in comparative religion: an anthropological approach - William Armand Lessa, Evon Zartman Vogt, John M. Watanabe 1979

        Book  Two essays concerning the symbolic representation of time - E. Leach. pp. 220-229.

      8. The rites of passage - Gennep, Arnold van 1977


    4. Topic 4: Space 9 items
      1. The Berber House - P. Bourdieu


      2. The Nuer: a description of the modes of livelihood and political institutions of a Nilotic people - Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1969

        Book  Read the second half of chapter 3. [Reprinted as 'The Nuer: Time and Space' in R. Grinker and C. Steiner (1997), Perspectives on Africa, pp.24-37. Oxford: Blackwell.]

      3. Perspectives on Africa: a reader in culture, history, and representation - Roy Richard Grinker, Christopher Burghard Steiner 1997

        Book  'The Nuer: Time and Space', pp. 24-37.

      4. Temne Space - J. Littlejohn 1963


      5. The Temne House - J. Littlejohn


      6. Right and left: essays on duel symbolic classification - Rodney Needham 1978

        Book  Read Introduction, and Right and Left in Nyoro Symbolic Classificatio

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